CPL(Licences)

The minimum age for a Commercial Pilot License is eighteen years of age. Before commencing training in the Commercial Pilot Program, a student requires a valid Private Pilot Licence—Aeroplane Category, and a valid Category 1 Medical Certificate. In accordance with the requirements established by the Private Career Training Institutions Agency, entrance into this program requires the completion of Grade 12 (or equivalent) or candidates must qualify as a mature student (age 19 and not having attended school full-time for 52 weeks).
This Groundschool course 20 establishes the first step taken for many in establishing themselves in careers as professional pilots. The Commercial Pilot exercises far-reaching privileges and is at the very centre of a very large and complex infrastructure designed to organise and make safe the daily movement of aircraft around the globe; with this great privilege, however, comes great responsibilities—every decision and every action made by the pilot entails the ultimate trust of life and security from paying passengers. This course seeks to prepare its students to successfully write the Transport Canada written examination for the Commercial Pilot License.
Prerequisites

In accordance with the requirements established by the Private Career Training Institutions Agency, entrance into this program requires the completion of Grade 12 (or equivalent) or candidates must qualify as a mature student (age 19 and not having attended school full-time for 52 weeks).  Additonally,  before commencing training in the Multi-engine Class Rating, a student requires:

  • a valid Commercial Pilot Licence or Private Pilot Licence;
  • a valid Category 1, or 3 Medical Certificate.
In accordance with the training standards of Transport Canada and Canadian Aviation College, the following provides an outline of air training which makes up the Multi-engine Class Rating Program.
At the outset of training, students are introduced to Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs).  SOPs are cockpit co-ordination procedures required by Canadian Aviation Regulations in multi-crew commercial flight operations, whether they be Air Taxi, Commuter, or Airline.  SOPs consist primarily of memorized pilot procedures and verbal calls that are used repetitively at various phases of flight, and serve to maximize pilot awareness in the cockpit.  The SOPs applied in this Program are published in Canadian Aviation College’s Multi-engine Flight Training Handbook; they are based on single-pilot commercial operations and closely correspond to the standards currently applied in commercial aviation.  SOPs are applied during all training flights.
One of the most challenging features of converting to a multi-engine aircraft is the tremendous speed variations with which the pilot must now contend.  This exercise focuses on pilot control throughout the aircraft speed profile, including pilot compensation for the increased drag associated with flap extension and retraction, and gear extension and retraction.
Students are introduced in this exercise to the greater precision and control associated with multi-engine landings and takeoffs.  With respect to takeoffs, student learn how to present a proper cockpit takeoff briefing, including the actions to be taken by the crew in the event of an engine failure below V1, and the quite different actions to be taken if the engine failure occurs above V1.  Students also learn how to fly a prescribed departure profile containing published V2 and V3 speeds.  Included in this exercise is the higher performance Vx obstacle climb where aircraft climb performance reaches 2000’ per minute.
Owing to the higher speeds at which steep turns are performed in a multi-engine aircraft, students are introduced in this exercise to the greater precision—especially with respect to pitch control—that is required to perform steep turns.  A higher speed aircraft is more susceptible to undesired altitude and speed changes in a steep turn that can result if the aircraft pitch is not managed effectively and accurately.  Smooth yet aggressive control inputs are emphasized here.

This exercise introduces student to the aerodynamic symptoms of a Vmc occurrence.  At a sufficiently safe altitude, one of the engines is brought to idle and the other engine is set to develop maximum power—simulating the conditions of flight most conducive to a Vmc occurrence.  By gradually reducing airspeed in this configuration, students experience first hand the control difficulties as Vmc is approached, as well as the corrective actions taken by the pilot and the effect these actions have on the aerodynamic behaviour of a multi-engine aircraft.

Stalls are a flight test item and students are required to demonstrate stalls both in a clean configuration—i.e., gear and flaps retracted—and in a landing configuration—gear and flaps extended.   Special consideration with respect to multi-engine stalls revolve around the pilot ensuring protection from what may be regarded as a “Vmc. occurrence”—if full power is inadvertently applied when the aircraft speed is below Vmc, a multi-engine aircraft can enter spin autorotation as a consequence of “asymmetric thrust” generated by the powered engine.  Students in this exercise learn stall recovery techniques that eliminate the possibility of a Vmc occurrence, yet minimise any loss of altitude.
This is the first exercise in which students learn to manage engine failures during multi-engine operations.  In response to a cruise engine failure students learn to maintain safe and proper control of the aircraft and the procedures undertaken to remedy the cause of the failure.   This exercise is first conducted in the Flight Simulator, and then in the aircraft.

Engine Failure—Takeoff Roll

In this exercise students learn the possible consequences of an engine failure that occurs during the takeoff roll prior to V1 being reached.  During the takeoff roll the pilot of a multi-engine aircraft must always be ready to react immediately to the sudden engine failure—if action is not taken immediately, the extreme yaw that is generated by the non-failed engine (if still set at maximum power) will cause such a sudden change in the aircraft’s direction that the aircraft could veer uncontrollably off the runway.  Students learn the various SOP-prescribed checks during the takeoff roll that will minimise the risk of a pre-V1 engine failure, as well as learn the corrective action necessary to maintain directional control should an engine failure occur at this critical phase.  This exercise is first conducted in the Flight Simulator, and then in the aircraft

Engine Failure—Overshoot

In this exercise students learn to manage an engine failure during an overshoot procedure, with the aircraft in an approach configuration—gear extended, flaps 40°, and airspeed 90 MPH IAS.  The first priority once an engine fails is of course to keep the aircraft under control, but the target in the exercise focuses on producing a positive single-engine climb as quickly and as safely as possible.  Most multi-engine aircraft—certainly the Seneca—will climb satisfactorily on one engine (given altitude, pressure, and temperature limitations), but to perform as published in the Pilot Operating Handbook, they must be “cleaned up” with the gear retracted, the flaps retracted, and the propeller of the failed engine feathered.  A common error is for the pilot to “climb away” prematurely, placing the aircraft in risk of a Vmc occurrence resulting from too low airspeed.  Timing with respect to vital actions and precision pitch and yaw control in this exercise is pivotal.  This exercise is first conducted in the Flight Simulator, and then in the aircraft.

Engine Failure—Single-engine landing

This exercise focuses on the special considerations that govern an approach and landing following an engine failure and shutdown.  With single-engine landings the main consideration that governs the actions of the pilot is two-fold.  Firstly, the pilot must ensure that, especially on the final phases of an approach, the power control inputs on the functioning engine do not become erratic with respect to managing the vertical placement of the aircraft along the glideslope—the need to apply power near the bottom of the approach in response to excess “sinking” would of course suddenly increase the risk of a Vmc occurrence.  Secondly, the pilot must ensure that the approach is conducted so as to avoid the need to conduct an overshoot—again owing to the increased risk of approaching Vmc.  The solution, of course, is effective planning in advance of a single-engine landing and this is what is emphasised in this exercise.  This exercise is first conducted in the Flight Simulator, and then in the aircraft.

Commercial Pilot Student Time Building in Canadian Aviation College (CAC)

Commercial Pilot students are commonly required to fly additional hours as Pilot-in-command (PIC) in order to meet the minimum time required by Transport Canada to qualify for the Commercial Pilot License—this would typically apply, for example, to student who have not flown other than the solo requirements for the Private Pilot and the Commercial Pilot.

If 20 hours PIC is completed during Private Pilot training, and the 30 hours PIC is completed during Commercial Pilot training, an additional 50 hours PIC would be required to meet the minimum 100-hour PIC experience requirements for the Commercial Pilot Licence established by the Transport Canada.  Importantly, then, students with low PIC time should make allowance for an additional cost of $7100 (50 hours at $140 per hour—the Cessna 150) or $8400 (50 hours at $168.00 per hour – the Cessna 172).

As well, to meet the 200 hour total time requirements for the Commercial Pilot License, students on average will have to also fly an additional 31 hours, but this time can be acquired through training for the Multi-engine Class Rating and Instrument Rating, thereby reducing the overall training costs.  However, for students with low PIC time who do not pursue these ratings, an additional allowance for $5208 (31 hours at $168 Cessna 172 aircraft rate—effective  August 01,2016) must be made, because to be an airline pilots require the Multi-engine Class and Instrument Rating.)

Course Costs (Canadian)

The following are the minimum costs for domestic students (effective August 01,2016) based on Transport Canada’s minimum requirements:

Air Instruction and Student Practice—Estimated Costs
Aircraft Type Cessna 150 Cessna 172
Aircraft cost per hour 140.00 158.00
10 hours Instrument Air Instruction (based on aircraft cost and $50 per hour Flight Instruction) 1900.00 2080.00
10 hours Advanced Air Instruction (based on aircraft cost and $50 per hour Flight Instruction) 1900.00 2080.00
5 hours Night Air Instruction (based on aircraft cost and $50 per hour Flight Instruction) 950.00 1040.00
30 hours Student Solo Practice (based on aircraft cost) 4260.00 4560.00
Sub-total: $9060.00 $9610.00
Ground Instruction and Administration—Estimated Costs
10 hours Dual Flight Simulator Instruction (Based on $70.00 per hour) 700.00
8 hours Preparatory Ground Instruction (Based on $50.00 per hour) 400.00
35 hours Pre-Flight Briefings No charge
20 hour Post-Flight De-briefings No charge
100 hours Groundschool 1000.00
20 hours Tutorial Instruction No charge
Pilot Books and Supplies (additional to required items for Private Pilot Program) 65.00
Flight Test and Transport Canada Fees (approximately—includes English Proficiency testing fee) 485.00
Sub-total: $2650.00
Estimated Total Costs
Aircraft Type Cessna 152 Cessna 172
Air Instruction and Student Practice $9060.00 $9610.00
Ground Instruction and Administration $2650.00 $2650.00
Total: $11710.00 $12260.00

 

The above pricing is a limited-time offer and is subject to change without notice.  Costs include all fuel costs and use of pilot headsets. Canadian Aviation College does not employ a fuel surcharge fee system.

All students must be cautioned that the cost of training is contingent on meeting the flight test standards of Transport Canada, and because the skill and knowledge of students varies, so do the training costs.  While variations in student performance are more prevalent at the Private Pilot level when compared, Commercial Pilot students must also financially plan for this and are encouraged to retain an additional $5,000 in reserve for financial planning purposes so as provide for varied rates of learning and varied levels of skill.

Also, note that students may be required to fly additional hours (time-building) as Pilot-in-command (PIC) in order to meet the minimum time required to qualify for the Commercial Pilot Licence—this would typically apply, for example, to student who have not flown other than the solo requirements for the Private Pilot and the Commercial Pilot.  Please see the above link for additional information.

Prepayent of fees is required for international student but not for domestic students.  Domestic students pay tuition and aircraft utilisation at the conclusion of training flights, and pay groundschool tuition at the beginning of the session.   All flight schools in British Columbia are required by law to charge the GST (5%).  Visa, MasterCard, American Express, and Debit Cards are accepted.

Where applicable, the above costs are based on Transport Canada’s minimum requirement.  While completion of the program by students is usually accomplished in accordance with Transport Canada’s minimum requirement, success of students is dependent on skill, knowledge, and preparedness.

Aircraft rates may be subject to change with minimal notice, depending on such things, for example, as fluctuating aviation fuel prices.

Transport Canada establishes the minimum requirements for the Commercial Pilot License as follows:

  • 200 hours flight-time experience, including 100 as Pilot-in-Command, and 20 hours cross-country Pilot-in-Command.
  • 65 hours flight training in the aircraft category (aeroplane, gyro plane, or helicopter), including no less than 35 dual with a flight instructor, and 30 hours solo.
  • Of the 35 hours of dual flight, 5 must be night (including a 2-hour night cross-country), and 20 hours must be instrument time (reference only to flight instruments); a maximum of 10 hours instrument simulator time may be credited toward the 20 hours instrument time required.
  • Of the 30 hours solo flight time emphasising improvement in flying skills, there must be a cross-country flight to a point not less than 300 nautical miles from the point of departure, with 3 full-stop landings.  The 30 solo hours must also include 5 hours by night and completion of 10 circuits.